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Humanität beruflicher Teilhabe im Zeichen der Inklusion: Was ist Gute Arbeit für Menschen mit Behinderung?


Autor/in:

Kubek, Vanessa


Herausgeber/in:

k. A.


Quelle:

Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 2011, 65. Jahrgang (Heft 4), Seite 277-284, Stuttgart: ergonomia, ISSN: 0340-2444 (Print); 2366-4681 (Online)


Jahr:

2011



Abstract:


Das System der beruflichen Teilhabe von Menschen mit Behinderung befindet sich in einem tiefgreifenden Wandel. In der politischen Diskussion dominierende Schlagworte wie Personenorientierung, Wirkungsorientierung oder Selbstbestimmung wurden bislang jedoch nicht ausreichend präzisiert. Maßgeblich ist die Frage nach der Qualität der Leistung zur beruflichen Rehabilitation. Wodurch zeichnet sich humane berufliche Teilhabe aus?

Das arbeitswissenschaftliche Verständnis von humaner Arbeit bietet hierbei wichtige Anknüpfungspunkte. Nicht zuletzt macht jedoch die im Zuge der Ratifizierung der UN-Konvention über die rechte von Menschen mit Behinderung angestoßenen Diskussion um 'inklusive Arbeitswelten' eine kritische Reflexion und Erweiterung des bisherigen Verständnisses humaner Arbeit erforderlich.

Praktische Relevanz:

Die den hier beschriebenen Forschungsarbeiten zu Grunde liegende Frage nach der Humanität beruflicher Teilhabe ist einerseits von besonders aktueller Bedeutung: Das System der Eingliederungshilfe wird - insbesondere seitens der Politik - derzeit stark dichotom bewertet. Eine wissenschaftliche Grundlage zur Bewertung von Arbeitsplätzen von Menschen mit Behinderung fehlt. Gleichzeitig ist die Forschungsfrage jedoch auch von systemischer Bedeutung: Seit Jahren ist die normative Diskussion um die Zukunft der Eingliederungshilfe von Schlagworten wie Inklusion, Selbstbestimmung, Personenzentrierung etc. beherrscht, ohne dass diese bislang für die konkrete Praxis beruflicher Teilhabe entsprechend operationalisiert wurde. An dieses Forschungslücke setzen die im Folgenden vorgestellten Arbeiten an.


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Englisches Abstract:

Humane work in the context of inclusion - What is good work for people with disabilities?


Abstract:


The system of providing vocational participation for people with disabilities in Germany is right in the middle of a fundamental change. The political discussion is dominated by highlighting the focus on individual needs and requirements, outcome orientation or self-determination, yet without a sufficient definition of these terms. Central to the discussion is the quality of service in vocational rehabilitation. But what is the key to humane vocational participation? The ergonomics'/human factors' definition of humane work is surely a basis. However, the discussion in the context of the UN convention on the rights of people with disabilities ratification on an inclusive world of work seem to necessitate a critical reflection and extension of the current definition of humane work.

While political discussions are summarising different alternatives of participation either in the category 'good' or 'bad', research must go further towards a detailed analysis. This analysis combines both the current general principles of the paradigmatic change as well as the needs of people with disambilities. Current discussion that focus its critique on sheltered workshops for people with disabilities, however, fail due to various reasons:

1) Normative requirements for occupational participation are not sufficiently elaborated. What, e.g., is to be understood by 'integrative work'?
2) A consolidated understanding of 'good work' for people with disabilities in not existent.
3) There is no validated instrument for analysis and assessment available to look at different work places for people with diabilities, to be applicable in various institutional and organizational contexts, and which builds upon a wider general principle of humane occupational participation.

This article therefore is focusing on the following questions: How could research outcome of ergonomics / human factors on the one hand and political discussion and normative agreemants on the other hand bundled together with regard to occupational participation of people with disabilities, and how could all of this result in a new general principle of humane occupational participation? Which criteria have to be taken into consideration when analysing humane occupational participaton with a particular focus on inclusion? How do the finding contribute towards a standardized instrument to analyse humane occupational participation in various work settings?

These research questions are dealt with a mix of methods to achieve various aims. The first aim is to make the concept of humane occupational participation operational, embedded into a theoretical exploration.

This exploration itself aims at the integration of additional aspects into the current understanding of ergonomics / human factors:
- Research findings within the context of international 'quality of working life' studies as well as of objective task observation und subjective task analysis;
- An understanding of humane work taking into account the union-based discussion on 'good work', that enriches the design of work by the design of employment relationships;
- Political / normative dimension that highlights aspects of self-determination, person centricity, social spheres and the safeguarding of societal participation through occupational participation;
- The legal framework of occupational participation in the code of social law and the call for 'inclusive work' on the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities.

Based upon these theoretical explorations, empirical research was conduced to integrate the stakeholder of occupational rehabilitation into the scientific discourse. Interviews with employees with disabilities in diverse work settings allowed to match the result of the theoretical explorations with the subjective views of the stakeholder. Which aspects are of relevance to the employees, if they are asked to assess their own work? Which criteria for the analysis hence need to be of relevance? The synthesis of the matching results in a set of criteria, to be used as a basis for an instrument to analyse humane occupational participation.

Practical Relevance:

The reported research work in based upon the question with regard to humanity of occupational participation, an aspect raised in current discussions. Political assessments of the system to integrate people with disabilities into work are of a dichotomous nature, while a scientific base for an assessment of work places for people with disabilities does not exist yet. At the same time, the research question is of a systemic value: since years the normative discussion around the future of the rehabilitation system is lacking operatonal difinitions of terms like inclusion, self-determination, people centricity ans others. The article contributes to fill some of the gabs.


Schlagworte:
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Dokumentart:


Zeitschriftenbeitrag




Bezugsmöglichkeit:


Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft (ZfA)
Homepage: https://link.springer.com/journal/41449

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Referenznummer:

R/ZS0006/0013


Informationsstand: 01.02.2012

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